Glossary Level 1
Access Channel - A navigation channel that connects the main channel or deep water to docks and berthing areas.
Airlift Dredge - A dredge that digs material from below water using the suction caused by air pressure.
Ancient Egypt - The period of Egyptian history between 5000 BC and 31 BC.
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Barge - A flat-bottomed vessel used for transporting goods and materials. Barges do not usually move on their own power, but are pushed or towed by tugboats.
Barge Tow - Barges joined together to be pushed or pulled as a group.
Bathymetric Map - A map that shows the contours of the bottom of a body of water.
Beach Nourishment - Placement of dredged material, normally sand, along a riverbank or coastline to build beaches or to replace beaches that have been washed away.
Beneficial Use of Dredged Material - The use of dredged material for some desirable purpose, such as habitat creation, flood protection, or construction of roads or airports.
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Canal - A man-made waterway for shipping or irrigation.
Canoe - A narrow open boat, pointed on both ends, propelled by paddling with an oar.
Cargo - The freight carried by a ship, airplane, truck or other vehicle.
Coarse-Grained Sediment - Soil definition based on the particle size of the material. Coarse-grained material has a diameter greater than 0.05 mm. Sand and gravel are coarse-grained materials; silt and clay are not.
Coastal Waterways - Waterways and water routes along the coast and coastal harbors of the country.
Commerce - The buying and selling of goods.
Congressionally Authorized - An action considered and approved by the Congress of the United States.
Contaminant - In water and sediment, it is a chemical or biological substance in a form that can be incorporated into, onto, or be ingested by and that harms aquatic organisms, consumers of aquatic organisms, or users of the aquatic environment.
Corps of Engineers - The engineering branch of the US Army. The Corps of Engineers was established by George Washington in 1775 to assist the military and to survey the lands and territories of the United States. Present-day mission areas include military and civilian construction, navigation, water resources development, flood control, emergency management, and support for others.
Cubic yard - (CY) A measurement of volume defined by a cube with a side length of one yard.
Current - steady, smooth onward movement.
Cutterhead - On a hydraulic dredge, the rotating blade on the suction end of the pipeline is called the cutterhead. The cutterhead breaks up material on the bottom of the channel before it is sucked up through the pipe.
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Dikes - Earthen walls constructed to contain water. Dikes are constructed around dredged material disposal sites. More commonly, dikes are constructed as flood protection.
Disposal site - The area within which disposal of dredged material occurs. Some disposal sites are on land, others are in water.
Domestic Route - Travel or trade route entirely within the United States.
Dredge - 1. (noun) The machine used to remove, by suction or scooping, sediment from the bottom of a water body. 2.(verb) To remove sediment from the bottom of a water body.
Dredged Material - Sediment that has been dredged from a water body.
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Economy - A country's industry, trade and finance.
Endangered Species - Any type of animal or plant whose ability to survive is seriously in question. Human activities can contribute to such endangerment.
Erie Canal - Canal built in the early 1800's that connected Lake Erie to the Hudson River. The Erie Canal provided a water route from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes entirely within the United States.
Erosion - The washing away of land and soil by the action of wind and water.
Export - 1. (noun) Something, such as food, lumber, or a manufactured product, that is sent or sold to another country. 2. (verb) To send or sell something to another country.
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Federal project - (for this text) Any navigation channel or maintenance dredging activity of any nature and for any purpose that is to be performed by or for the Secretary of the Army acting through the Chief of Engineers pursuant to Congressional authorizations.
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Great Lakes - The five connected lakes along the border of the United States and Canada. They are Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, and Lake Huron.
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Habitat - The specific area or environment in which a particular plant or animal lives. An organism's habitat provides all of the basic requirements for the maintenance of life. For example, typical coastal habitats include beaches, marshes, rocky shores, bottom sediments, mudflats, and the water itself.
Hopper dredge - A hydraulic dredge that stores dredged material in large bins, or hoppers, inside the hull of the dredge and then transports it to the disposal area.
Hydraulic dredge - A dredge that digs material by mixing it with water and sucking it from the bottom.
Hydrographic surveying - Measuring the depth and mapping the bottom of lakes, rivers, or oceans.
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Impact - The effect of one thing or action on another person, activity, or area. For example, environmental impact refers to the good or bad effect an activity has on the surrounding environment.
Import - 1. (noun) Something, such as food, lumber or a manufactured product that is bought or brought from another country. 2.(verb) To bring or buy something from another country.
Inland Waterways - Waterways, including improved river channels, canals, and navigation locks, on the interior of the country.
International trade - The buying and selling of products, such as foods, manufactured goods, or natural resources, among different countries of the world.
Isthmus of Panama - The narrow strip of land that connects North America and South America. On one side of the Isthmus of Panama is the Atlantic Ocean and on the other side is the Pacific Ocean.
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Kayak - A narrow covered boat, pointed on both ends, propelled by the rider paddling with an oar.
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Levee - A dike used for flood protection.
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Maintenance Dredging - Dredging a navigation channel to keep it in good condition and restore depth.
Mechanical Dredge - A dredge that removes material by scooping it from the bottom.
Mississippi River - The largest river in North America, which runs from Northern Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico.
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Nautical Chart - Maps of rivers, harbors, and oceans that contain information necessary for the safe navigation of ships.
Navigation - Travel by ships, aircraft, or other vehicle using maps.
Navigation locks - Structures built on waterways that fill and empty with water to assist boats and ships in transit by raising or lowering them. Locks are comparable to elevators for boats.
Nile River - A north-flowing river in Africa, which flows through Egypt and empties into the Mediterranean Sea.
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Panama Canal - A waterway through the Isthmus of Panama, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
Phoenicians - People of the ancient civilization of Phoenicia, a collection of city-states located on the Mediterranean Sea, where Syria and Lebanon now exist. The Phoenicians are famous as early ship-builders and sailors and are credited for the development of the first alphabet.
Pilot - A person who is employed to steer a boat or ship through a river channel. River pilots are very knowledgeable about a particular river or channel. Bar pilots are very knowledgeable about a particular ocean entrance.
Port - A place on a waterway that has facilities for loading and unloading ships.
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Remote - Distant.
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Sediment - Soil that is carried into oceans, lakes, streams, and rivers and settles to the bottom.
Ship - 1.(noun) A large sea-going vessel. 2.(verb) To transport.
Shoal - 1.(noun) A shallow area in a waterway caused by the deposition of sediment. 2.(verb) To become shallow due to the deposition of sediment.
Stakeholder - One who has a share or interest in an issue or the outcome of a decision.
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Tow Path - A path along a canal on which men and horses walked while towing boats.
Trading - Buying, selling, or bartering of goods or services.
Trading Partners - The persons, companies, or nations among which trading occurs to the benefit of all parties.
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Upland - The ground above the flood plain that is not covered by water.
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Vessel - A boat or ship.
Vikings - Scandinavian people, who dominated northern Europe from the 9th to 11th centuries. They were known as great ship-builders, fierce conquerors, and explorers.
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Water Transportation - To move people or goods by boat, barge, or ship.
Waterways - Rivers or channels on which boats, barges, and ships can travel.
Wetlands - An area that is covered or wetted by surface or groundwater, often enough that plants that can only live in wet soil live there. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas and are important areas for wildlife and flood control.
Established: April 23, 2002
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